THE SCINASIUM LEARNING CENTER MIAN CHANNU
++Please join our academy for bright future++
Address: Mian Channu,Punjab
Facebook Page: https://web.facebook.com/ICS2ndYear/
Detail Of This Lecture:
Procedural Language ( Third Generation Languages)
A procedural language is a type of imperative language. Procedural language means that people can write their programs as a series of step-by-step. A program consists of sequence of instructions computer executes these instructions in same sequence in which they are written in program. Each statement of procedural language tells computer what to do and how to do. Procedural languages are also called 3rd generation languages. Example of procedural languages is FORTRAN, COBOL, BASIC, Pascal, C.C#, Phyton, C++ and java is procedural languages with object oriented features.
FORTRAN stands for Formula Translation. It was developed by John Backus and his team in 1954 to solve mathematical calculations. It was the first widely used high level general purpose programming language. According to Wikipedia In 1993, Cecil E. Leith called FORTRAN the “mother tongue of scientific computing”. Software for NASA probes Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 was originally written in FORTRAN 5, and later ported to FORTRAN 77. As of 25 September 2013 some of the software is still in FORTRAN and some has been ported to C.
COBOL stands for Common Business Oriented Language, during 1950s, when the businesses were growing in the world; there was a need to develop such applications that solve business problems. It was designed by Howard Bromberg, Howard Discount, Vernon Reeves, Jean E. Sammet, William Selden, Gertrude Tierney for business use.
BASIC stands for Beginner’s All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. It was developed by John G. Kemeny and Thomas E. Kurtz in the mid 1960s at Dartmouth College . It was developed to write school applications.
Pascal is a procedural programming language developed on the pattern of the ALGOL 60.It was developed by Niklaus Wirth in 1970 in honor of the French mathematician, philosopher and physicist Blaise Pascal. It is used for both scientific and business applications.
Non Procedural Language (Fourth, Fifth Generation Languages)
Non-procedural programming languages are not based on procedures. In non-procedural languages we have to specify only “what to do” and not “how to do. It is typically database oriented. Non-procedural languages are also known as 4GL. Perl, PHP, Python, Ruby, SQL, RPG, 4D QL, Informix-4GL, OpenEdge ABL, OpenROAD (Ingres 4GL) and FOCUS are some examples of non-procedural programming languages.
Note: Mostly every programming language is Procedural but like SQL, Visual Basic, etc are non Procedural language. According to Quora(www.quora.com) Most languages are mixed-paradigm and this is where I differ from most of the other posters as most of the examples given contain both procedural and non-procedural elements. C++ is mixed-paradigm.
OOP(Object Oriented programming)
According to Wikipedia Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm based on the concept of “objects”, which may contain data, in the form of fields, often known as attributes; and code, in the form of procedures, often known as methods.
Objects = data + methods
• Data: operand with a (real-world) meaning.
• Methods: restricted operations on the data.
Many of the most widely used programming languages (such as C++, Object Pascal, Java, Python etc.) are multi-paradigm programming languages that support object-oriented programming to a greater or lesser degree, typically in combination with imperative, procedural programming. Significant object-oriented languages include Java, C++, C#, Python, PHP, Ruby, Perl, Object Pascal, Scala, Swift, Objective-C, Common Lisp, Dart, and Smalltalk.
There are three categories and five generations of high level languages.